Ragnall ua Ímair, King of Waterford

Ragnall ua Ímair
King of Waterford
refer to caption

Ragnall’s name as it appears on folio 39r of Oxford Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson B 489.[1]
Reign 1022–1035
Predecessor Sitriuc mac Ímair
Died 1035
House probably Uí Ímair

Ragnall ua Ímair (died 1035),[2] also known as Ragnall mac Ragnaill,[3][note 1] was an eleventh-century King of Waterford. He appears to have ruled as king from 1022 to 1035, the year of his death.

Family

Ragnall’s name as it appears on folio 16v of Oxford Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson B 488 (the Annals of Tigernach): “Ragnall mac Raghnaill meic Ímuir“.[6]

Ragnall seems to have been a descendant of Ímar, King of Waterford (died 1000).[7] Ragnall’s father may have been Ragnall mac Ímair, King of Waterford (died 1018).[8] Such a relationship would indicate that the patronym ua Ímair—accorded to Ragnall by the Irish Annals that note his death—refers to Ragnall mac Ímair’s father, the aforesaid Ímar.[9][note 2]

Reign and Death

Although Reginald’s Tower in Waterford was built by Anglo-Normans, it likely sits upon an earlier Viking Age fort, and seems to be named after one of the kings of Waterford who bore the name Ragnall (a name cognate to Reginald and Røgnvaldr).[11]

Very little is known of the Waterfordian kingship in the early eleventh century.[12] Ímar died in 1000.[13] His son, the aforesaid Ragnall mac Ímair, died as king in 1018.[14] Another son of Ímar, Sitriuc mac Ímair, King of Waterford was slain by the King of Osraige in 1022.[15] An apparent brother of Ragnall died in 1015.[16] Ragnall himself appears to have ruled Waterford from 1022 to 1035.[17] The Annals of the Four Masters, the Annals of Tigernach, and the Annals of Ulster reveal that, in 1035, Ragnall was slain by Sitriuc mac Amlaíb, King of Dublin (died 1042).[18]

The following year, Sitriuc mac Amlaíb was driven out of Dublin by Echmarcach mac Ragnaill (died 1064/1065).[19] Whilst the parentage of the latter is uncertain, if he was a related to Ragnall—perhaps as either a brother or son—it could mean that Echmarcach’s actions against Sitriuc mac Amlaíb were undertaken in revenge for his death.[20] Against this possibility is the fact that there is no evidence that Echmarcach, or his known family, had any connection with Waterford.[21] Whatever the case, Ragnall’s fall appears to have been an important benchmark in Waterford’s history, and after this date the enclave increasingly fell prey to the machinations of the Uí Briain and the Uí Cheinnselaig.[22] In fact, two years after the killing, the King of Waterford was Cú Inmain ua Robann (died 1037), an apparent Irishman.[23]

Notes

  1. Also known as Ragnall Ua Ímair,[4] and Røgnvaldr Røgnvaldarson.[5]
  2. If, on the other hand, Ragnall was not a son of Ragnall mac Ímair, another possibility is that he was the son of Ragnall mac Gofraid, King of the Isles (died 1005).[10]

Citations

  1. The Annals of Ulster (2012) § 1035.5; The Annals of Ulster (2008) § 1035.5; Bodleian Library MS. Rawl. B. 489 (n.d.).
  2. Downham (2007).
  3. Forte; Oram; Pedersen (2005).
  4. Connon (2005).
  5. Duffy (2006).
  6. The Annals of Tigernach (2010) § 1031.4; Annals of Tigernach (2005) § 1031.4; Bodleian Library MS. Rawl. B. 488 (n.d.).
  7. Downham (2007) p. 56 fig. 10; Connon (2005); Hudson, BT (2005) p. 129; Etchingham (2001) p. 181; Duffy (1992) p. 96.
  8. Downham (2007) p. 56 fig. 10; Hudson, BT (2005) p. 129; Etchingham (2001) p. 181; Hudson, BT (1992) p. 355.
  9. The Annals of Ulster (2012) § 1035.5; The Annals of Ulster (2008) § 1035.5; Downham (2007) p. 3 n. 12.
  10. Duffy (2006) pp. 53, 55.
  11. Wilson (2014) p. 30; Hurley (2011).
  12. Etchingham (2001) p. 181.
  13. Annals of the Four Masters (2013a) § 999.7; Annals of the Four Masters (2013b) § 999.7; Chronicon Scotorum (2012) § 999; The Annals of Ulster (2012) § 1000.3; Chronicon Scotorum (2010) § 999; The Annals of Tigernach (2010) § 1000.2; The Annals of Ulster (2008) § 1000.3; Downham (2007) pp. 56 fig. 10, 261; Annals of Tigernach (2005) § 1000.2; Hudson, BT (2005) p. 129; Etchingham (2001) p. 181; Murphy (1896) p. 164.
  14. Annals of Inisfallen (2010) § 1018.5; Annals of Inisfallen (2008) § 1018.5; Downham (2007) p. 56 fig. 10; Hudson, BT (2005) p. 129; Etchingham (2001) p. 181; Jaski (1997) p. 139 § 1035.5.
  15. Annals of the Four Masters (2013a) § 1022.11; Annals of the Four Masters (2013b) § 1022.11; Chronicon Scotorum (2012) § 1022; The Annals of Ulster (2012) § 1022.1; Chronicon Scotorum (2010) § 1022; The Annals of Tigernach (2010) § 1022.2; Annals of Loch Cé (2008) § 1022.1; The Annals of Ulster (2008) § 1022.1; Downham (2007) p. 56 fig. 10; Duffy (2006) p. 52; Annals of Loch Cé (2005) § 1022.1; Annals of Tigernach (2005) § 1022.2; Etchingham (2001) p. 181; Jaski (1997) p. 137 § 1022.1; Murphy (1896) p. 170.
  16. Annals of the Four Masters (2013a) § 1014.15; Annals of the Four Masters (2013b) § 1014.15; Chronicon Scotorum (2012) § 1014; Chronicon Scotorum (2010) § 1014; Downham (2007) p. 56 fig. 10.
  17. Hudson, BT (2005) p. 129.
  18. Annals of the Four Masters (2013a) § 1035.3; Annals of the Four Masters (2013b) § 1035.3; Downham (2013) p. 145; The Annals of Ulster (2012) § 1035.5; The Annals of Tigernach (2010) § 1035.5; Annals of Loch Cé (2008) § 1035.5; The Annals of Ulster (2008) § 1035.5; Downham (2007) pp. 56 fig. 10, 272; Duffy (2006) p. 55; Annals of Loch Cé (2005) § 1035.5; Annals of Tigernach (2005) § 1035.5; Forte; Oram; Pedersen (2005) pp. 227–228; Hudson, BT (2005) p. 129; Etchingham (2001) pp. 181–182; Jaski (1997) p. 139 § 1035.5; Duffy (1992) p. 96; Anderson (1922a) pp. 590–592 n. 2.
  19. Forte; Oram; Pedersen (2005) pp. 227–228; Hudson, BT (2005) p. 129; Etchingham (2001) pp. 181–182; Duffy (1992) p. 96.
  20. Connon (2005); Forte; Oram; Pedersen (2005) pp. 227–228; Hudson, BT (2005) p. 129; Etchingham (2001) pp. 181–182; Duffy (1992) p. 96.
  21. Hudson, BT (2005) p. 129; Etchingham (2001) p. 182; Hudson, BT (1992) p. 355.
  22. Downham (2013) p. 145.
  23. The Annals of Ulster (2012) § 1037.4; The Annals of Tigernach (2010) § 1037.2; The Annals of Ulster (2008) § 1037.4; Annals of Tigernach (2005) § 1037.2; Hudson, BT (2005) p. 129; Etchingham (2001) p. 182; Hudson, BT (1992) p. 355.

References

Primary sources

Secondary sources

 

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